A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY. COLOMBIA, 202 YEARS OF ITS INDEPENDENCE
Colombian emancipation is part of the situation of the bourgeois revolutions and should not be understood as an isolated event, since when it came, most South American countries subject to Spanish rule had their own revolutions.
Independence at that time was facilitated by multiple causes, among them is the situation of the Spanish metropolis, which in those years made a pact with the English and French to split Portugal, their neighbor and growing power, but was betrayed and invaded by France and Napoleon, who after capturing the king of Spain: Fernando VII, granted Jose Bonaparte the titles of king of Spain and Emperor of the Americas.
To understand the whole situation we have to go a little back in history. On March 16th , 1781 in what is now Santander, Manuela Beltran breaks the edict concerning the new contributions which became known as the Uprising of the villagers, a purely popular movement where participants were peasants, Indians and mestizos (mixed blood) in general. The villagers tried to take the colonial power, but they managed to sign a capitulation approved by the Court which gave certain preferences to the Americans against the Spanish. The capitulations were unknown to the Viceroy Manuel Antonio Florez.
A group of villagers under the leadership of José Antonio Galán again rise to the breach of the capitulation, but soon were arrested. On February 2nd , 1782 Galán was hanged along with the other three chiefs commoners. Their heads, hands and feet were exposed on stakes in public places in the capital, Santa Fe de Bogota and in the towns of most active rebellion. His descendants were declared infamous, all his property confiscated and their homes destroyed and washed down with salt. Many leaders were sentenced to be weapped, public disgrace and imprisonment in Africa. Many landless peasants were sent to Panama, where they had to perish on account of inclement unhealthy tropical climate. The few sentences of the rich were much less dire, some were simply jailed in Cartagena and were later pardoned. Many people dispersed to outlying areas for fear of reprisals.
However, it is now clear that what happened this day was not a spontaneous event and those that had characterized colonial politics. It was the result of several circumstances that happened and ended in a great rebellion of the people.
As a result of the events that were happening in Quito, and in Bogotá, a council was established consisting of notable civil authorities and intellectuals Criollos (born in New Granada but white with Spaniard blood). The main representatives of the oligarchy that made the meeting were: José Miguel Pey, Camilo Torres, Acevedo Gomez, Joaquin Camacho, Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Antonio Morales, among other respectful people.
The board proposed to promote a notable incident with the Spanish, to create a conflict to give out to potential unrest that existed in Santa Fe against the Spanish audience. The important thing was to get the Viceroy, under pressure from the public disturbance, constituted the same day the Supreme Council of Government, chaired by Mr. Amar and composed of Aldermen of the City Council of Santa Fe.
They began to perform successive meetings in members' homes and then in the Astronomical Observatory, whose director was the Wiseman Francisco Jose de Caldas. In this meetings they began to think what political tactics was limited and transient cause a public nuisance and take advantage to take the Spanish power.
Don Antonio Morales said the incident was to be provoked with the peninsular merchant José González Llorente, famous for being mean with the locals, and offered "happily" to intervene in the altercation. Notable natives accepted the proposal and decided to execute the project on Friday, July the 20th , when the Square would be filled with people from all walks of life, as the usual market days.
To avoid suspicion of provocation, was agreed that Don Luis Rubio was the appointed day to shop Llorente to borrow a vase or any kind of adornment that will serve to decorate the banquet table Villavicencio announced. In the case of a refusal, the Morales brothers proceed to attack the Spanish.
To ensure the success of the plan, if Llorente delivered the vase or refused courteously, it was agreed that Don Francisco José de Caldas happen at the same time in front of the store and greeted Llorente, so what chance would give Morales to reprimand him for speaking to a "Chapetón" enemy of the Americans and thereby beginning the incident. The vase was for their holding a festival in honor of Don Antonio Villavencio, the incident happened as planned and culminated in the proclamation of the independence of Colombia.
The Criollos had substantive reasons, the July 20th became the straw that overflowed the glass. At the meetings held between 1808 and 1810, although the natives were invited, the representation was minimal, consisting of 36 Spaniards, there were 9 Americans. This made the natives think for the first time the possibility to abide by a nation-state.
This events were the birth of a great state called Colombia.